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[讲座预报]美国本土印第安人类学者访华讲座:11月11日下午14:00

[讲座预报]美国本土印第安人类学者访华讲座:11月11日下午14:00

[讲座预报]美国本土印第安人类学者访华讲座


  作者:民文 | 中国民俗学网   发布日期:2008-10-29 |


  



演讲主题:部落遗产的保存及发展:以美洲玛卡部落印第安人为例

主讲人:梅瑞迪斯•帕克、特雷沙•帕克(美国玛卡文化与研究中心)

时间:2008-11-11(星期二)下午14:00
地点:中国社会科学院民族文学研究所会议室(中国社会科学院院部科研楼11层1103室)

主办单位:中国社会科学院民族文学研究所口头传统研究中心
联系人:宋颖 (85195635)\朱刚 (85195632)


主讲人简介:
梅瑞迪斯•帕克(Meredith Parker),美洲印第安人玛卡部落玛卡文化与研究中心理事会主席,目前定居于华盛顿州的尼亚湾玛卡印第安人保护区。长期以来,梅瑞迪斯•帕克致力于玛卡印第安人的社区事务,迄今已在玛卡部落工作了35年有余。同时,她还兼任某林业管理咨询公司的主管,积极推动玛卡社区非营利性组织的发展。她任职的单位或项目有“欧塞特考古项目”(Ozette Archaeological Project),玛卡文化与研究中心(Makah Cultural and Research Center, MCRC)以及玛卡林业管理部(Makah Forestry Enterprise)。

特雷沙•帕克(Theresa Parker)供职于玛卡文化与研究中心的教育后勤部(1995年至今),已在玛卡部落工作了30余年。她是玛卡文化与研究中心理事会的创始人之一,同时兼任华盛顿西北美洲原住民篮艺协会(Northwest Native American Basket Weavers Association of Washington State,NNABA)副主席。1993年至今,她也在华盛顿州伯林汉西北印第安学院(文化艺术项目)兼职Northwest Indian College-Bellingham, Washington (NWIC-cultural arts program)。



  文章来源:中国社会科学院民族文学研究所

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【玛卡部落印第安文化简介】

Makah Culture:
language/Potlatch /Long Houses

Language

The Makah Language is is the ancestral Tongue of the Makah Indian Tribe. Called Qwiqwidicciat, the Makah language belongs to the Southern Nootkan branch of the Wakashan language family. It is the only representative of these respective classifications in the United States. All other languages related to Makah are spoken in British Columbia, Canada.

Traders, explorers and other early visitors to Makah Territory often believed that the Makah Language was closely related to the languages is the neighboring Salish and Chimakuan families, because these languages use similar sounds. In fact, the name Makah is a derivative of a Salish word inappropriately assigned to the tribe during treaty times. The Tribe's correct name into the ancestral language is Qwiqwidicciat "people who live by the rocks and seagulls," a reference to the rocky coastline.

Modern linguistic techniques indicate that Qwiqwidicciat became a language distinct from its closest relative, Nitinaht, about 1,000 years ago. Qwiqwidicciat and Nitinaht have a relationship that is similar to the relationship between Spanish and Italian today.

Like other tribal languages in North America, Qwiqwidicciat did not have a written component prior to contact with non-indians. There are 5 unique sounds, or phonetic units, in Qwiqwidicciat. Many of these sounds are not found in English or any other Indo-European language, so we use a variation of the international phonetic alphabet to represent Qwiqwidicciat in written form. The Makah Alphabet was formally adopted by the tribe in 1978.

The creation of the Makah Alphabet and the centralization of language preservation efforts through the Makah Language Program of the Makah Cultural and Research Center, demonstrated the Makah Tribe's dedication to the restoration of Qwiqwidicciat. These efforts were necessary because American Federal Policy deliberately sought to eradicate Tribal languages during the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century.

In order to preserve and restore the Qwiqwidicciat, The Makah Language Program works with elders who speak Makah as their primary language. We record oral histories, conduct linguistic research, prepare entries for the Qwiqwidicciat-English dictionary and develop curricular materials for use in the public school on the reservation, and in Makah Cultural and Research Center exhibits and projects

Potlatch

An important aspect of Makah life is the potlatch, which serves to enhance social standing and redistribute wealth and property. Potlatches are social events that mark passages in life, record oral history and maintain the status of families. Marriage and naming ceremonies, coming of age parties, memorials and feasts would sometimes last up to 10 days and neighboring tribes are invited. There is a strict protocol in the organization and presentation of the event, where family and guests reiterate their family privileges and entertain each other with inherited songs and dances and elaborate ceremonies commemorating the event. Preparation for these great feasts might take years, as the family needs to acquire or make enough gifts for all the guests.

Long Houses

The rare preservation at Ozette gives a detailed look at the houses of the past. From beneath mud flows, archaeologists have recovered timbers and planks, and with them has come a unique chance to see household arrangements from the distant past. In the part of one house, where a woodworker lived, tools were found and also tools in all stages of manufacture, there were even wood chips. Where a whaler lived, there lay harpoons and also a wall screen carved with a whale. Benches and looms were inlaid with shell and there were other indications of wealth.

A single house had five separate living areas centered around cooking hearths, each still safeguarding evidence of what its occupants did. More bows and arrows were found at one living area than any of the others, an indication that hunters lived there. Another had more fishing gear than other subsistence equipment, and at another, more harpoon equipment. Some had everyday work gear and very few elaborately ornamented things. The whaler's corner was just the opposite.

The houses were built so that planks on the walls and roofs could be taken off and used at other places as people moved seasonally. Paired uprights supported rafters which, in turn, held roof planks that overlapped like tiles. Wall planks were lashed between sets of poles. The position of these poles depended on the lengths of the boards they held and they were evidently set and reset through the years the houses were occupied. Walls met at the corners by simply butting together. They stayed structurally independent, allowing for easy dismantling. There were no windows. Light and ventilation came by shifting the position of roof planks, which were simply weighted with rocks, not fastened in position.

Benches raised above the floor on stakes provided the main furniture of the houses. They were set near the walls. Cuts and puncture marks indicated they served as work platforms; mats rolled out onto them tie with elders' memories of such benches used as beds.

Storage concentrated behind the benches, along the walls and in corners between benches. These locations within the houses have yielded the most artifacts. The rafters must have also provided storage, but the mudflow carried away this part of the houses.

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Canoes

Canoe makers turned out all sizes of craft from children's practice canoes to whaling canoes more than 30 feet long and war canoes even bigger. They hollowed out red cedar logs, then steamed them by pouring in water and adding fire-heated rocks. Softened this way, the sides could be flared, yet keep the strength of the straight grain. If the flare were carved in, the sides would be cross grained and weak.

Canoe sides found at Ozette have hardwood gunwales laced on to protect the sides from the constant wear of paddling. Such strips were easy to replace. Sails have not been found in the archaeological deposits. Nobody knows how far back they date.

The Early Makah knew how to read the weather and what its specifics meant at each location. Safety at sea depended on this. They watched the color of the sky and the direction of the wind, listened to the sound of the water, and noticed how vapors were rising from the earth and laying against the hills. They knew the positions of the stars and moon according to season. Men sat on the beach in the evening and watched these signs and nobody bothered them, for lives depended on this knowledge.

Natural landmarks guided navigation on clear days - such as exactly how two islands lined up with each other or with the mainland, and the appearance or disappearance of certain peaks. If fog came in, men could steer by the set of the ocean swells and the feel of familiar tide rips. Surf breaking headlands or rocky islets sounded different than waves against the sand; the call of nesting sea birds characterized certain islands.

Today, the Makah are still skilled mariners and many make a living fishing. Canoes are still a vital part of Makah life and every year they embark on long journeys, paddling hundreds of miles in ocean going canoes to tribes along the coast of Washington and British Columbia, as well as Puget Sound Tribes. Each stop on their journey is marked with a welcoming celebration from the tribe upon whose shores they have asked to land. The paddlers are welcomed ashore with songs, dances and a dinner is held to honor the visitors. They camp on the beach, then leave early in the morning for the next destination.

End of the journey, celebrations are held in a pre- arranged location. This is where the journey will end. The celebration sometimes lasts for days. This is the place where all the participating canoes will meet and celebrate their arrival and the completion of their journey with family songs, dances and a feast.

Trade
Coiled baskets within the buried houses are like those made along the lower and central Fraser River of British Columbia. Some of these were found with paint in them, evidence of their use at Ozette. There also were 14 strips of coiled basketry that had been cut into strips, probably as potlatch gifts.

Cutting blankets and breaking ceremonial pieces of copper is known to have taken place at British Columbia potlatches in historic times; and the strips, including one nearly four feet long, are typical of the Fraser River high-prestige pieces. At Ozette, they were found carefully stored with other valuable goods, not scattered about the house.

At least three spruce root hats at Ozette seem to be from the north coast of British Columbia, where this material is favored for hats, and where the style. of twining is different than along the Washington Coast. There are also several carrying baskets, probably from the south or east. A certain type of rim and handles, plus bear grass overlay used for decoration, marks them as probably from the lower Olympic Peninsula or Puget Sound. These baskets were empty when found. Once, they may have held dried deer or elk meat, or clams, perhaps traded by the basketful to the Makah.

Several things, aside from basketry, are also quite clearly from beyond Makah territory. These include a carved D-adze handle of madrona wood and oil dishes of Oregon ash, woods that don't grow near Ozette or any other Makah village. Small round pieces of abalone shell are partly from the single species of abalone native to the Olympic Peninsula, and partly from a species ranging no closer than Oregon. Nearly 100 red turban opercula were cached in one of the Ozette houses, most of them in the corner where a whaler evidently lived. These must represent trade or gifts, for only one or two complete shells of this snail species have come from all the rest of the deposits.

In exchange for such goods , the early Makah probably traded, and gave, whale and seal oil, whalebone, dentalia shells, sea otter and fur seal pelts, dried halibut and other sea foods. As is true in recent times, these early people must have exchanged some of the coastal abundance for foods and materials not really needed, but wanted. Makah lands and seas in themselves provided enough for people to live well. What came from the outside were extras that made a rich life richer still.

Sealing
In 25 foot canoes specially designed for speed and manned by two hunters, men paddled out to intercept the herds. They sought mostly females, which winter in temperate waters then start north in early spring to give birth and breed anew. Today fur seals are a rare sight this far south; they were here formerly, however as their bones are present in the early deposits of Ozette.

The males are huge, weighing up to 700 pounds. Females weigh only 75 - 100 pounds. Even so, sealers who loaded more than ten of them into their canoe during a day's hunt had to gut them. Otherwise, that many seals would overload the canoe. Today's elders remember how it was to go sealing and evidence from Ozette proves that the hunt is thousands of years old. All levels of deposits hold more fur seal bones than those of any other kind of mammal.

Canoe paddles were silent: a long, pointed tip kept water from dripping noisily and hunters paddled without lifting the blades into the air. Unlike whaling harpoons, these shafts were lightweight so that they could be thrown accurately for 30 or 40 feet. A finger rest helped control aim. Two fore shafts held the barbed blades. One was longer than the other to improve chances for a hit. The Makah word for a sealing harpoon means "two points"

Fur seals sleep floating on their backs with hind flippers curled on their chests. Hunters watched for groups of three of four such sleepers, sometimes slipping within 10 - 15 feet of them without disturbance. Larger groups had a sentinel likely to sound an alarm.

After a successful throw, a harpooner would draw in his seal by the cedarline attached to the twin mussel shell blades. Such lines might be as much as 12 fathoms long. As the enraged animal came alongside, someone bashed the head with a heavy club. Sometimes a frenzied seal leapt into the canoe. Sometimes it bit its captors. Even so, a successful hunt compensated well for the long paddle and the danger.

Villagers prized the oily blubber and rich fur which kept seals warm in cold northern waters. They also prized the lean, dark meat. Fur seals were seasonal, yet Makahs hunted them so successfully that they were fundamental the economy throughout the year

Fishing
Halibut were a mainstay for Makahs, available year round. Constantly bringing the fish in, men kept track of which feeding banks they were using and so could find them at any time. Women filleted the flesh and then dried the pieces in openwork baskets which provided ventilation. Poles from roof racks for drying halibut lay with the planks of the Ozette houses.

Salmon came seasonally, swimming through Makah salt water to start their freshwater runs in the rivers and streams of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Pacific Ocean. Makah rivers also drew spanners. At Hoko River, excavations have yielded hooks and nets 2,600 years old. Depending on the location, salmon were caught by hooking, harpooning or shooting with arrows. In places, latticework weirs acted as obstructions, concentrating the fish and making them easier to catch.

Herring and smelt came to sandy beaches. The herring were caught on the bone points of rakes swept through the shallow water. Smelt were taken in fine mesh dip nets. The nets are of particular interest, for they take a great deal of time and energy to make and require careful drying and storing to prevent rot.

Ling cod and bass prefer rocky places. The ling cod could be lured to the surface from the shallow bottoms where they spawned and took up guard to protect their eggs. At the surface, they were speared.

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Makah Cultural and Research Center, Neah Bay Map   

North America > United States > Washington >







Located in Neah Bay, Makah Cultural & Research Center works towards preserving the Makah language offering various programs. The Center also operates the Makah Museum, which features a permanent collection of artifacts related to Makah history.

Address
Makah Cultural & Research Center
Highway 112 & Bay View Avenue
Neah Bay, WA 98357
United States
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W E L C O M E   
     
  The Makah Museum in Neah Bay, recognized asthe nation's finest tribal museum, welcomes visitors to experience the life of pre-contact Makah people. The permanent exhibits include artifacts from the Ozette collection, uncovered from a Makah village partially buried by a mudslide nearly 500 years ago. Inside the museum you will find a full-size replica long house, and four cedar dug-out canoes. Whaling, sealing, and fishing gear, basketry and other tools are also on display, preserved by the unique conditions created by the mudslide.
The Museum shop contains carvings, basketry, and jewelry made by Makah artists, and a wide selection of prints, books and cards. The Makah Museum is open to the public 7 days a week year round. Admission is $5 for Adults $4 for senior citizens and students, and free for children 5 and under. Visa and MasterCard accepted. Group discounts available. Guided tours by reservation only.



  The Makah Cultural and Research Center (MCRC) also houses the Makah language program which works toward preserving and teaching the Makah language. The MCRC's Education department responds to thousands of requests annually from the Makah and non-Makah groups and individuals seeking information about Makah Culture and Neah Bay community which is available for researchers to use upon request (sometimes an application process is necessary). The Collections department manages the 60,000+ artifacts in the MCRC's permanent collections and researches the artifacts in other museums that may be returned to the Makah Tribe.

The Makah Tribal Historic Preservation Office is housed within the MCRC, and is responsible for managing cultural properties on the Makah Indian Reservation.


The Official Website of the Makah Tribe
http://www.makah.com/index.html
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顶一个!

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upupup

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美国人类学者访华的讲座不少,但美洲本土印第安人的人类学者讲座应该还是头一遭,希望大家踊跃参加!!!

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希望日后有机会能再办
印刷公司

[ 本帖最后由 alicechan22 于 2021-1-7 22:13 编辑 ]

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